Radio for Peace
|Peace Education Standing
Commission c/o Prof. (em.) Dr. Johannes Lähnemann, Lehrstuhl Evangelische
Religionspädagogik der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Regensburger Str. 160
|"We welcome your initiative very much."
Ludo Maes, Belgium, Transmitter Documentation
Project, 11 July 2001
|"I was very interested to see your new
Web site, as for the past several years we have hosted a dossier called
Hate Radio' on the Radio Netherlands Web site. ... I am wondering if
there is some way in which we can work together for our mutual benefit.
I will be happy to add a link to your site if you would do the same to
Andy Sennitt, Radio Netherlands, 16 July
|"Viele Grüße aus London. Gratuliere
sehr zum Start der Peace Radio Website."
Thomas Voelkner, UK, World Radio Network,
16 July 2001
|"Endlich habe ich es mal geschafft, von
meiner Clandestine Radio Watch
Seite einen Grafik-Link zu Deiner Seite
anzulegen, das wollte ich schon immer mal machen, da Deine Seite ja doch
ueber das genaue Gegenteil meiner Seite berichtet. Waere schon schoen,
wenn Du mehr zu berichten haettest als ich. Ist aber nicht so."
Martin Schoech, Clandestine Radio Watch,
Germany/USA, 13 September 2001
|"We highly recommend readers visit Hansjoerg
Biener's Peace Radio site as well as RNMN's Hate Radio Dossier.“
Martin Schoech, Clandestine Radio Watch
31 January 2004 in DX-Listening Digest
of information is... the touchstone of all the
freedoms" (UN Freedom
of Information Conference, 1948)
Anyone reading these lines, is obviously
in a privileged position of having access to the internet and a wealth
of information, even to tuning in to a large number of domestic and foreign
stations. Nonetheless, internet broadcasts are limited by the number of
channels a broadcaster can afford to put out. This number rarely exceeds
5,000. On the other hand listenership on traditional radio is only limited
by the number of radio sets running at any given time.
In countries where
much of the population is illiterate and poor the power of radio is particularly
obvious. Radio broadcasting is the main medium for mass information and
education but can also be used for misinformation and propaganda. In civil
war and crisis situations, survival will depend as much on getting reliable
information as it does on getting food, water and medicine. The need for
information makes civilians vulnerable for misinformation. But: Communication
facilities and links are almost always the first targets of assault. In
any coup control of the national radio centre is of prime importance to
proclaim victory, and regional rebels seize regional stations to proclaim
that they are a force to be reckoned with. Especially in countries like
Liberia, Somalia and Congo (Kinshasa) where state order has collapsed faction
leaders and warlords have used their own radio stations for more than information
Hate vs. peace
Sometimes one might
wonder why people enjoying a life without a daily struggle for life seem
to be interested in the reporting about conflicts and catastrophes rather
than on societal improvement and scientific and cultural achievements.
One might remember that content analysis as
a scientific method started with a special interest in the techniques of
radio propaganda exhibited both in the US and in Europe since the 1930s.
Even peace researchers tend to focus more on the factors of conflict and
conflict resolution rather than on the factors that keep peaceful relations
running. Similarly, hate radio received more attention in the media than
peace radio efforts. Some of the early propaganda also had religious
motivations, and still today some religious
broadcasts leave the terrain of competing convictions and propagate hatred.
radio those responsible for the contents use
media power not only to present one-sided views or to deceive the public,
but to deny others the right of living or at least living where »I«
live. The »reasons« cited may be ethnic origin, religion, political
conviction, sexual orientation or whatever.
On the other hand,
in several regions hate radio faced the opposition of radio
stations for peace, democracy and human rights.
Their efforts are routinely documented on the Peace Radio Website.
articles on the Peace Radio Website
Information is regularly
checked and updated drawing on individual research and news provided by
international readers and listeners. The Peace Radio Website currently
features information on the efforts of the following radio projects:
landscape in the last 10-15 years has seen a dramatic growth in diversification,
with many private and community radio and television stations receiving
licences to go on the air. To help ensure that Africa’s airwaves remain
accessible to all, Article 19, an international human rights organisation
which defends and promotes freedom of expression and freedom of information
all over the world, has designed a training manual aimed at raising awareness
among governments and regulatory officials of the importance of broadcast
regulation. It explains how and why broadcasting should be regulated, why
licensing is necessary, and the importance of public service broadcasting.
It also details the role of a broadcasting regulatory authority and outlines
different approaches to regulation.
Over the last decade,
at least eighteen countries in Africa have been consumed by war,
usually internal. At present there are several active conflicts in Africa-they
are Cote d'Ivoire, the Darfur region of Sudan, Northern Uganda, Burundi,
and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The manual includes
references to regional and international broadcasting standards, such as
the African Charter on Broadcasting and the Declaration of Principles on
Freedom of Expression approved by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’
Rights. It is designed to be used as a guide for trainers who teach courses
for broadcasting regulators. It can also be used as a self-directed learning
tool by government officials.
See full article as part of our 2001-2002
wave broadcasting in general
The Power of the Media
Hate vs. Peace Radio
PESC Promoting the Awareness
of Peace Radio in the Context of National and International Radio
Current articles on
the Peace Radio Web Site
Freedom of Information
as a Factor of Peace
still very much ahead
broadcasting in particular
There are approximately
1200 short wave transmitters worldwide.The five major international broadcasters
in terms of daily progamme hours are China Radio International, BBC World
Service, Voice of America, Deutsche Welle, and Voice of Russia. In terms
of listeners, Western stations lead in the audience statistics: BBC World
Service, Voice of America, and Deutsche Welle.
The total estimated
number of households worldwide with at least one short wave set in working
order is 600 Mio. In this category, Asia leads with a large majority, followed
by Europe, Sub Saharan Africa, and the former Soviet Union, and indeed
most daily transmission hours are directed to Asia and Europe, with Africa
third and the Middle East fourth. This will gradually change. While shortwave
radio ownership is on the decline worldwide because of more local choices,
throughout sub-Saharan Africa radio remains the most widely accessible
and heavily used medium. It is very much a mass medium and is used most
often for news, music and religious programmes.
During the year
2004 the activity of political clandestine stations broadcasting on shortwave
has decreased by 28.5 % to 1229 Weekly Broadcasting Hours (WBHs). This
is the lowest level of activity since 1999 and the second lowest ever since
this survey has first been compiled in 1986.
Activity by clandestine
stations on the Asian continent has decreased by 35 % or 495 WBHs to now
920 WBHs with the five most active target
all in a declining trend. Clandestine activity to target areas on the American,
African and Oceanian continents has remained more or less unchanged from
last year at 166, 127 and 16 WBHs respectively.
The three most active
target areas worldwide remain exactly in the same ranking as one year ago:
Iraq with 332 WBHs (-416 when compared with one year ago), North
Korea with 168 (-49) WBHs and Afghanistan with 165 (-24) WBHs.
Despite the declining
trend in overall figures, it should also be noted that the number of different
target areas active worldwide has increased by three to 24. So, the trend
towards more diverse, but also mostly low-budget operations, is apparently
still intact, and has been only temporarily overshadowed by operations
on the Afghanistan/Iraq scenes.
(Mathias Kropf 19
In 2005 the activity
of political clandestine stations broadcasting on shortwave has decreased
by almost 3 % to 1195 WBHs (Weekly Broadcasting Hours). This is the lowest
level of activity since 1999. The activity of clandestine stations with
target areas on the Asian continent has decreased by almost 9 % to 841
WBHs. Activity on the African continent, however, has increased by 51 %
to now 192 WBHs. Very little has changed on the American continent where
activity is now at 162 WBHs.
The three most active
target areas worldwide are Iraq with 225 WBHs (-107 when compared with
one year ago), Afghanistan with 190 WBHs (+25) and North Korea with 168
WBHs (unchanged). The number of different target areas active worldwide
has increased by one to 25. It should be noted that all four new (or reactivated)
target areas are on the African continent (Senegal, Somalia, Gambia and
Cameroon). On the other hand, Lebanon, Colombia and Papua New Guinea are
no longer thought to be active. (Mathias Kropf 23 December 2005)
of press freedom 2004
In late October
2004 Reporters Without Borders announces its third annual worldwide index
of press freedom. It was compiled by asking partner organisations (14 freedom
of expression organisations in five continents), its 130 correspondents
around the world, as well as journalists, researchers, jurists and human
rights activists, to answer 52 questions to indicate the state of press
freedom in 167 countries. Others were not included for lack of information
but the list has steadily grown in the past three years. It is based solely
on events between 1 September 2003 and 1 September 2004.
Press freedom is
threatened most in East Asia (with North Korea at the bottom of the entire
list at 167th place, followed by Burma 165th, China 162nd, Vietnam 161st
and Laos 153rd) and the Middle East (Saudi Arabia 159th, Iran 158th, Syria
155th, Iraq 148th). In these countries, an independent media either does
not exist or journalists are persecuted and censored on a daily basis.
Freedom of information and the safety of journalists are not guaranteed
there. Continuing war has made Iraq the most deadly place on earth for
journalists in recent years, with 44 killed there since fighting began
in March 2003.
Evaluation by region:
Europe and former USSR
of the rankings 2002-2004 prepared by Hansjoerg Biener
2004 as Deadliest Year for Reporters in a Decade
Journalists and press
freedom advocates marked the 15th annual World
Press Freedom Day
2005 by paying tribute to colleagues killed on the job. This year's observance
was an especially somber one. The Paris-based organization, Reporters Without
Borders, designated 2004 as a "year of mourning." In its annual report
on press freedom, the group said 53 journalists were killed on the job
during the past year - the most in a decade. The deadliest spot for journalists
was Iraq: In 2004 19 reporters and 12 of their colleagues were killed.
But the Committee
to Protect Journalists says that of the 190 journalists killed across the
world since 2000, only a handful died when caught in
crossfire or while
on a dangerous assignment. The vast majority of 121
murdered in retaliation for their reporting. In most cases, the media watchdogs
say, the journalists are murdered with impunity, because governments fail
to investigate crimes against the press. Next to Iraq, the world's
most dangerous place to be a journalist are the Philippines and Bangladesh.
were imprisoned in 2004. 27 of them are held in China - where authorities
see a free press as threatening to stability. The press organizations say
that attitude has been shared for years by the governments of North Korea
and Burma and more recently of Nepal - where authorities cracked down on
press freedoms after King Gyanendra took emergency powers. Spokesman Jean-Francois
Juilliard says he expects the trend to continue, "because more and more
journalists are targeted in lots of countries, only because they wrote
some stories denouncing corruption or denouncing some practice from politicians,
no we are not really optimistic." The report cited new threats to journalists'
freedom in countries like the US, where a number of reporters have faced
legal problems for refusing to disclose confidential sources.